How does cobalt enter water?
Cobalt is an element that occurs naturally in the environment in air, water, soil, rocks, plants and animals. It may also enter air and water and settle on land through wind-blown dust and enter surface water through run-off when rainwater runs through soil and rock containing cobalt.
Testing using cobalt chloride paper
Cobalt(II) chloride solution forms pink crystals, CoCl2. 6H2O, and if this is heated gently it turns into blue anhydrous cobalt(II) chloride, CoCl2.
It can harm the eyes, skin, heart, and lungs. Exposure to cobalt may cause cancer. Workers may be harmed from exposure to cobalt and cobalt-containing products. The level of harm depends upon the dose, duration, and work being done.
As cobalt is widely dispersed in the environment humans may be exposed to it by breathing air, drinking water, and/or eating food that contains cobalt. In the general population food and drinking water are the largest sources of exposure to cobalt.
- green leafy vegetables, such as broccoli and spinach.
- cereals, such as oats.
Cobalt ions are hydrated in the solution and have a pink color. Adding concentrated hydrochloric acid to the solution changes the color of the solution to bluish-purple. This is because the chlorine ions force the water out of the water complex of cobalt.
Removal of cobalt from water and organic solvents is fairly common using strong acid cation resins. For waters with low levels of salt content, a strong acid cation resin such as AmberSep™ G26 H Resin would be a good starting point.
- Artificial Joint Replacements.
- Bricks and Cement.
- Ceramic Paints (Blue Colors)
- Clothing Fasteners. • Buckles. • Buttons. • Hooks. • Pins. • Rivets. • Snaps. • Zippers.
- Cosmetics. • Eyeshadow.
- Household Tools and Utensils.
- Hair Ornaments.
* Avoid skin contact with Cobalt. Wear protective gloves and clothing. Safety equipment suppliers/manufacturers can provide recommendations on the most protective glove/clothing material for your operation.
In higher concentrations, cobalt is toxic to humans and to terrestrial and aquatic animals and plants. At the time of issuing the report, BC MWLAP uses the Ontario guideline for the protection of freshwater aquatic life (0.9 µg cobalt/L) as a working water quality guideline.
How common is cobalt poisoning?
Systemic cobalt toxicity post-arthroplasty is extremely rare. The few known fatal cases of cobalt toxicity appear to be a result of replacing shattered ceramic heads with metal-on-metal or metal-on-polyethylene implants.
Elevated blood levels of cobalt and chromium ions can persist for at least 1 year after revision, especially in patients with high levels of exposure.
Cobalt is one of the components of vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin.
Cobalt is mainly absorbed from the pulmonary and the gastrointestinal tracts. Absorption through the skin can occur but is low. Concomitant exposure to tungsten carbide increases the pulmonary absorption rate of cobalt metal.
Cobalt is found in the minerals cobaltite, skutterudite and erythrite. Important ore deposits are found in DR Congo, Canada, Australia, Zambia and Brazil. Most cobalt is formed as a by-product of nickel refining.
Normal chromium levels range from 0.06 to 0.93 in healthy patients and the highest safe level in the bloodstream is considered to be 17 micrograms per liter of blood. Cobalt is not an accumulating metal, meaning it is stored in the liver and processed out of the body through urine but not stored in the bones.
- Jewellery [see Jewellery allergy]
- Metal household items (eg, cutlery, zippers, coins, keys,)
- Cosmetics – especially eye shadow, blushers, and compact powders [see Contact reactions to cosmetics]
- Clothing and shoes [see Textile contact dermatitis, Shoe contact dermatitis]
- Hair dye.
She and her colleagues recommend avoiding chocolate, seafood (especially shellfish), some legumes, grains, nuts, canned foods, leafy green vegetables, and multivitamin supplements/drinks with nickel. "Cobalt is commonly associated with nickel dermatitis and also presents with vesicular hand eczema," said Dr. Matiz.
The results obtained show that the trace dissolved cobalt in Phan Thiet seawater is found equal to 0.25 ± 0.04 μg/L ( , %) with the adsorption efficiency being higher than 95% ( , %).
Cobalt blue (CoAl2O4) is used as an intensely blue, easy-to-synthesize, and stable pigment. However, cobalt is toxic and environmentally harmful. Synthesizing alternative pigments with lower toxicity but a similar color and intensity has been challenging so far.
Is all cobalt radioactive?
|Discovery and first isolation||Georg Brandt (1735)|
|Main isotopes of cobalt|
[Unithiol, an antidote in cobalt poisoning]
- Activated carbon adsorption method. Adsorption is a very common method for removing heavy metals in water, and it is also an entry-level removal method. ...
- KDF electrolytic replacement method. ...
- Ion resin exchange method. ...
- Reverse osmosis membrane separation method.
There are also traces of cobalt in food, antiperspirants, dental or orthopedic prostheses, detergents and washing powders, plastic, and in other metal objects containing nickel. They can also be found in pigments used in cosmetics and make-up, hair dyeing, and tattoos.
A cobalt allergy typically begins when you're exposed to cobalt in eye makeup, tattoos, or industrial products. It causes an itchy, red, scaly rash. A vitamin B12 sensitivity can appear as a rash after you take a supplement.